Nouns - Basic Rules & Their Patterns in Portuguese


Nouns - Basic rules


    Portuguese plurals are similar to English plurals. Add an "s" to the word and follow a few patterns. :)

But there is an important difference: all adjectives, articles, possessives and determiners pointing to the noun must be also changed to plural, according to the noun.

Some patterns:

Ending in vowels: add an "s"
O menino > Os meninos
A menina > As meninas

Ending in "r", "s", "z": add "es"
A mulher > As mulheres
Ending in "M": change to "ns"

O homem > Os homens

Ending in "L": change to "is" (don't repeat the "i")

O animal > Os animais

O papel > Os papéis (the papers)

O funil > Os funis (the funnels)
("e" and "o" will need an accent if the word doesn't have one already)

There are other patterns, but they're not necessary at this point :)

Two advanced examples, one masculine and one feminine, just to illustrate the rules:
Os teus livros são vermelhos = Your books are red

As tuas maçãs são vermelhas = Your apples are red
Personal pronouns

The plural of the pronouns seen so far are:

SingularPlural
I = EuWe = Nós
He/She/It = Ele/ElaThey = Eles/Elas
You = VocêYou = Vocês


Notice that it's important to distinguish between singular and plural "you" in Portuguese!

Verbs - Conjugations


Different from English, Portuguese not only has different conjugations for "ele/ela", but for each person, singular and plural.


There are three types of regular verbs. They end in either "ar", "er" or "ir", and each type follow a pattern.
FritarComerAbrir
EuFritoComoAbro
Ele/ElaFritaComeAbre
NósFritamosComemosAbrimos
Eles/ElasFritamComemAbrem

* - Conjugations for "você" are the same as "ele/ela"
* - Conjugations for "vocês" are the same as "eles/elas"

SerLer
EuSouLeio
Ele/ElaÉ
NósSomosLemos
Eles/ElasSãoLeem
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